Leopard Frogs

Leopard frog sitting by Bob Warrick

Common Name

Leopard frogs, northern leopard frog, southern leopard frog

Size

Adult leopard frogs measure 2-5 inches (5-13 cm) in length. Tadpoles can grow to 3 inches (8 cm) or more before growing arms and completing metamorphosis. When leopard frog tadpoles complete metamorphosis the juvenile frogs often only measure an inch or so in length. The process of going from egg to tadpole to frog takes between 3 and 6 months to complete. In cool or overcrowded conditions, or in captive situations where the tadpole does not have ample food, it can take much longer to turn into a frog. Juvenile frogs take 1-2 years to mature.

Appearance

Leopard frogs have an emblematic frog-look, with powerful hind legs, a streamlined body, and slightly angular head. There are more than a dozen species of leopard frog but they all have black spots on their dorsal side, hence the common name leopard frog. The background color behind the black spots ranges from a bright grass green to a dull tan or brown depending on species. The ventral side is white in color and lacks pattern.

Distribution, Habitat and Behavior

Leopard frogs are found throughout North America. The distribution of the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) and southern leopard frog (L. sphenocephals) covers most of the continent. The southern leopard frog is found in the southeast United States and the northern much of the rest of the U.S. and Canada. Other species of leopard frogs have much smaller distributions. Some, such as the Ramsey Canyon leopard frog (L. subaquavocalis), are confined to only a handful of ponds.

Adult leopard frogs are found near water. They often live near the water’s edge in grassy habitat. Here leopard frogs may spend the day on land, jumping into water for safety if disturbed. They are skittish and jumpy frogs, both in nature and captivity.

Availability

Leopard frogs are one of the most familiar frogs in the United States. Most often northern leopard frogs and southern leopard frogs are kept in captivity. Other species are maintained by zoos and aquariums for conservation breeding purposes.

Although occasionally adult leopard frogs are offered for sale at pet stores, more often their tadpoles are sold. Leopard frog tadpoles are rarely labeled as such but instead may just be sold as “tadpole” without regard for what species it could be. Other species like green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) are also regularly sold this way.

Caring for Tadpoles

Leopard frog tadpoles are not difficult to maintain and they can be kept similar to fish. The most important part of their care is water quality. Use a large volume of water (upwards of 10 gallons) if possible because the larger the volume of water the more stable the conditions. A power filter will help maintain water quality in addition to frequent partial water changes. Removing a third of the water once every 1-2 weeks is good practice. If tap water is used, an aquarium water conditioner that removes chlorine and chloramines should be used to treat the water a day in advance of the water change.

Inside the aquarium very little is needed. In fact, tadpoles can be kept on a bare-bottom, although providing gravel will allow increase surface area for helpful bacteria to grow which help maintain water quality. Floating vegetation can be grown in the aquarium if strong lighting is used. Floating plants provide cover and help maintain water quality.

Leopard frog tadpoles will eat standard aquarium fish foods. There are also diets designed specifically for aquatic amphibians and tadpoles. Tadpoles will also feed on aquatic plants and detritus within the aquarium. Feed daily and use a variety of foods if possible, but make sure not to overfeed. All food should be eaten by the tadpole within an hour or less. If there is excess food in the aquarium it should be removed.

When front arms are about to pop through make sure there is easy access to land. You can do this by decreasing the water depth and adding a large rock or aquarium decoration that breaks the water’s surface. Another option is to float a piece of cork bark in the water. At this point the tail will begin to be absorbed and the tadpole will not require food. Once the tail is fully absorbed the little frog will need frequent feedings of live insects as described below.

Leopard Frog Housing

Adult leopard frogs require a large amount of room to comfortably live in captivity. A 30 gallon aquarium that measures 36 inches long by 12 inches wide by 16 inches high (91 cm by 30 cm by 40 cm) is large enough for one or two adult frogs. Young frogs can be kept in smaller enclosures. A secure screen cover is essential to prevent escapes. Large plastic bins or stock tanks often make better housing than typical glass aquariums because of their non-transparent sides. Leopard frogs are prone to attempting to leap through glass or transparent materials and may injure themselves in the process.

Semi-aquatic Setups

Leopard frogs are semi-aquatic and should be provided with both a land area and large water area. There are many ways to create semi-aquatic environments for captive amphibians. For leopard frogs, often the easiest is to fill an aquarium a third of the way full with water and then place several large rocks towards one end that protrude from the surface of the water. Use plants or pieces of driftwood on top of the large stones to provide cover and help frogs feel secure. Also, importantly, make sure the rocks are stable and will not fall over or harm the frogs.

Another way to create a semi-aquatic habitat for leopard frogs is to create a small shoreline setup. In this method, medium to large grade gravel can be used. Push most of it to one side to form a land area, leaving the other half of the aquarium with a thin layer. The slope between the two sides should be gradual. It may helpful to place pieces of slate or river rocks alongside the slope to help hold its form.

Once the rocks are in position, the aquarium can be filled with enough water so that the water line is slightly below the land area. All exposed gravel on the land section should be covered with large river rocks, sheet moss, soil, or a combination to prevent the gravel from being ingested by leopard frogs during feedings. Live or fake plants can be used in both the water and land area as shelter along with driftwood, cork bark, and rocks.

Water Quality

In semi-aquatic setups it is often helpful to use a small submersible power filter. In large setups a canister filter can be used instead. The output of all filters should be deflected with a rock to prevent a large current from being formed. Leopard frogs usually live near still or slow-moving water and do not need much of a current in their enclosure.

Perform water changes weekly, with around half of the water being removed at a time. It may be helpful to use an aquarium vacuum to suck out the waste that gets caught in the gravel on the water side.

Housing Dangers

There are many other ways to make semi-aquatic setups but some of them are not suitable for keeping leopard frogs in. Make sure that if small gravel is used on the land area that it is covered with large rocks, sheet moss, or soil so that it cannot be swallowed by the frogs. If a large float is created using cork bark or plastic make sure that the frogs cannot get stuck beneath it and drown.

Backgrounds

It is important to put a terrarium or aquarium background on the sides and the back of the cage to prevent the frog from trying to jump through the glass. If tap water is used in the tank it should be treated with tap water conditioner to remove chlorine, chloramines, and heavy metals. Certain types of bottled spring water can be used instead of treated tap water.

Temperature and Lighting

Leopard frogs live well when kept between 60°F and 80°F (16°C and 27°C) for most of the year. Submersible aquarium heaters can be used to heat the water, if needed, and a low wattage incandescent light bulb can be positioned over the land side to create a warm area on land. Take care that the light does not overheat the enclosure. Use a good quality thermometer to measure the temperature in different parts of the cage and monitor it carefully during different times of the year to make sure it stays within a safe range.

Diet

Like most frogs, leopard frogs eat live insects and other invertebrates in captivity. Most of their diet can be composed of crickets and earthworms. Other food items including wax worms, small or cut-up night crawlers, silkworms, and roaches can be offered in addition to crickets and earthworms. Some leopard frogs will also eat or attempt to eat aquatic animals like ghost shrimp and feeder guppies. Feed anywhere from two to six food items per frog two or three times each week. Juvenile frogs should be fed every day.

It is important to use a high quality vitamin and mineral supplement designed for reptiles and amphibians on food before offering it to leopard frogs. This will help avoid nutritional deficiencies which develop overtime when leopard frogs do not receive the right nutrients in their diet. Use the powdered nutritional supplement at every feeding for juvenile frogs and at least once every two or three feedings for adults.

27 Comments

  1. I inherited a very slow morphing leopard frog this past summer. I did tons of research and after 8 months of not developing, Froggy all his legs. I set up his new home in a 20 gallon tank. I will admit that I have been altering his habitat quite frequently and I am starting to wonder if I am traumatizing him with all the changes. My intentions have been good in trying to set up a nice looking, functional, semi-aquatic tank. I ditched the shoreline set up in order to reduce the stress of frequent water changes. I currently have a shoebox sized plastic bin with de-chlorinated water and some rocks, sourrounded by large gravel. This is about 40% of the tank as he (she?) seems to prefer water (is always jumping in to hide, even during feeding). Unfortuanately the water is now filled with the coconut fiber so I am thinking of going back to the shoreline set-up. Froggy has not eaten with me watching in 3 1/2 weeks when he ate non-wriggler red worm that I purchased at a local bait and tackle shop. Since then, I have not witnessed him eat wax worms, Phoenix worms, or mealworms which he used to gobble down shortly after I placed him on the dry portion of his tank. I’ve been dumping in a generous portion of fruit flies every other day..adding calcium/nutrients) ever 3rd feeding. I also leave a few mealworms on the dry land and/or in a feeding cup to see if he will find them. He hasn’t so far. He doesn’t seem particularly skinny but it worries me that I don’t KNOW if he is actually eating. IHe hides pretty much all the time so I’ve made sure that he has lots of places to hide on land and in the water.

    • Sounds like a good setup. Yes, sometimes leopard frogs can take half a year or longer to complete metamorphosis, especially if kept at cooler water temperatures, stocked densely, or if there is not enough food available.

      Feeding young frogs can be frustrating if they don’t eat while you’re watching. Leopard frogs are shy and although they will become accustomed to a person watching while feeding, it may take some time. In addition to the foods you have been feeding, you might also try small crickets. If the frog is not eating while you are around just make sure to count the food items placed in the enclosure when fed and to count them again the next day. If there are the same number as when fed then the frog is not eating, but if there are less everything is okay and perhaps the frog has just been fed too much.

      Enjoy the leopard frog. It sounds like it is receiving good care.

      • Thanks so much for your reply! I tried tony crickets again 2 weeks ago and he ran from them! LoL It is hard to count how many fruitflies he is eating! Worms as well since they are good burrowers…last night I put a couple of pieces of banana in to attract fruit flies and see if I can count that way. We’ll see…

  2. I have a leopard frog tadpole that I will soon need to add to a semi aquatic tank. I got the tadpole eggs online, and they came with food pellets. When I transfer him to the terrarium should I keep on feeding him the pellets until his tail is fully gone? Start feeding him live food? Or both?

    • If the tadpole has front arms then you don’t need to feed the pellets anymore. The tadpole will soon absorb its tail and while doing so will live off of the nutrients from it. You can also observe the tadpole’s behavior. If the arms look like they are coming but have not fully developed and the tadpole is still rasping on the glass and substrate then you should still feed. If not then the mouth has already started to change and no food is needed. Good luck and enjoy the new frog.

  3. My school was giving away these frogs and i was lucky enough to get three so i looked at this site and went to my local pet smart to get all supplies i got water cleaner a chest and a rock house so i reccomen those things

  4. Hi, I just recently got two tadpoles from a pond and I’m pretty positive they’re Leopard Frog spawn. I know I probably should’ve left them in there but I couldn’t help it! I enjoy watching them and taking care of them. I noticed that one of them has what seems to be two small ticks on it’s side and tail? He/she seems to be swimming perfectly fine and I haven’t really noticed anything wrong other than it’s a little red around where the ‘ticks’ are. I was thinking about getting tweezers and picking them off but I don’t want to damage the tadpole. If you have any clue on what these ‘ticks’ are or what I can do, I’d really appreciate it!

    • Hi Misty,

      Could they be back legs forming? Are the tadpoles old enough? If there are two little bumps of similar size on each side of the body at the insertion of the tail then these are the back legs forming. The back legs develop first and over the following weeks they should grow larger in size and eventually develop feet and toes. Give it some time and see what happens, and enjoy watching the tadpoles develop!

      All the best,

      Devin

      • I’m sure it’s not it’s legs, I’ve had tadpoles before. I looked again and it looks like some sort of small water bug or leach has attached it’s self to the tadpole’s side and there’s a smaller little thing near the end of it’s tail. Do you think it’d be alright if I tried to pluck it off? I really don’t want to hurt them, thanks!

        • Hurt the tadpole *

          • In that case it could be some type of ectoparasite. I don’t know if fish lice can infect tadpoles, but they sort of look like ticks and are sometimes found on fish in the aquarium hobby. On fish they can be physically removed. I suspect there are many other types of ectoparasites that can attach themselves to tadpoles too, so if it doesn’t look like fish lice then maybe another kind. In fish sometimes medication is needed for treatment, but not all medications used for fish are safe for amphibians so use caution.

            I unfortunately don’t have the expertise to help you, I’m not a vet and I haven’t experienced this myself with tadpoles, but it is worth looking into fish lice at least and seeing if that may be the problem. If you do identify what they are please let me know, I am curious too.

            Best,

            Devin

      • I looked again this morning and the big one on it’s side is gone, I’m guessing it fell off and is dead now because there’s nothing swimming in the water like it and the other tadpole is fine. The smaller one is still on the tapole’s tail but doesn’t seem like much of a problem. They don’t look like fish lice and I didn’t see any ectoparasite pictures that look like the thing that was on my tadpole. Hmm… but at least it’s gone now and the smaller one will most likely drop off too. Hopefully my tadpoles will grow up happy and healthy now.

        Thank you!

  5. shawna stambaugh

    Hi I just wanted to tell you, that I have successfully raised leopard frogs. I started out with way too many tadpoles and had to release 3 times until I had 12 remaining. I have 6 frogs in an enclosure, 3 froglets still in the tank and 2 tadpoles left who received their back legs just this week. I am so proud of myself and they are growing each day. They are on a cricket diet right now and tomorrow I’m putting fruit flies in. I’m donating one to a nature center this week and releasing the rest when they get a little bigger. If I give them earthworms and cut them up, will they still wiggle to get they’re attention?

    • Great work! It sounds like you have done an excellent job raising the tadpoles. Yes, after worms are cut into pieces they will still catch the frog’s attention so long as they are visible (don’t move under a rock, fall deep in water, the frog is near the feeding dish, etc.)

      Also, remember to only release the leopard frogs in the exact same location where the tadpoles were found and only if you do not keep other amphibians or aquatic animals. If there are other frogs or fish in the aquarium with the frogs and tadpoles, or if you cannot return to the place the tadpoles were collected, it is better to keep them in captivity.

      Enjoy the newly morphed leopard frogs,

      Devin

      • shawna stambaugh

        I collected the tadpoles in my backyard, I have a small wetland area so that where I will release them back. One of them is going to a nature center that I volunteer at as a program animal. I will try the worms, right now they eat fruit flies and crickets.

  6. Devin, I’m looking for more in depth assistance with rearing our tadpoles. We had our first clutch back in March, managed to get 6 to froglets, and yet 4 have died in the last 2 days. We built a 60 gallon viv with approx 25% water, live plants on the dry side with lots of hiding places. They have now been in the 1 week and they have lots of 1/4 crickets and I did see 3 or 4 of the frogs eating. Also, we have 2 sides covered with a decorative wrap for tanks. When I check out the dead frogs, I see no injuries externally, 3 of them were found floating in the water and one on land. We have the adults in a separate vivarium, similar set up, and they have been doing well for over 1 year. We just found on Sunday a new clutch of eggs, which as of today several eggs appear to be developing into tadpoles. I would appreciate some guidance or recommendation for a proper biology book with concentration on amphibians

    • First, congratulations on the successful breeding! Are you certain they are leopard frogs? Could they be another species?

      Metamorphosis is a delicate time for amphibians. Often there is mortality. Drowning is possible if access to land is difficult, but there are many reasons why you may lose amphibians during this transitional period and it can be difficult to determine a cause. Water quality, temperature, disease or other issues are all possibilities for tadpoles and young frogs just like they are for adult frogs.

      One suggestion I have is to move individuals that are in the process of completing metamorphosis to a small enclosure. A 5 or 10 gallon aquarium or plastic container of similar size is more than enough room. Provide shallow water that is not much deeper than the tadpole/frog itself with many objects protruding from the water’s surface for easy access out. Raising one end of the container is another option so that there is water in one end that gradually gets shallower towards the other.

      Once the tail is completely absorbed the frogs may not need food for a few days. Keeping the newly metamorphosed frogs in a small enclosure will allow you to carefully observe them and note if they are eating or not (count the number of small crickets put in and count again the next day if frogs are not eating while you are watching). Once juvenile frogs have reached a point where they seem strong, often around 1-3 months, they can be moved to larger housing.

      Best of luck,

      Devin

  7. I have a southern leopard green frog and a small baby toad in the same tank together but I’m afraid that the leopard frog eat the toad. Will the leopard frog eat a toad?

    • It seems possible that a hungry leopard frog might try to eat a baby toad if they are kept in the same enclosure together. If the leopard frog is well-fed, the enclosure is large, and the toad is not really a baby but an inch or two in length then probably not.

      The real problem, though, might be the different habitats a toad and a leopard frog live in. Leopard frogs are semi-aquatic and need a large area of water. Your toad will be more terrestrial and do best with a setup that only has a small water dish. They may also compete for food with one another. For these reasons, and the possible risk of predation, it is probably best to keep them in different tanks.

      See http://amphibiancare.com/2005/05/18/american-toad/ for a basic overview of toad care.

      Devin

  8. I teach second grade and we raised tadpoles to observe their metamorphosis, which was so neat to see! I took it to the next level and geeked out reading every source I could to help them survive and thrive as adult frogs and our “class pets”. I’ve set up a super awesome 30 gallon “natural” habitat with river pebbles and rocks, coconut substrate on the land, and a piece of driftwood along with fake leaves stuck to the sides (which one frog enjoys climbing in.) We have 2 frogs, one tadpole (who is a late bloomer), and a big aquatic snail.
    What type and wattage of lighting, if any, would you recommend for them? They’ve seemed happy and great with none besides what’s in the room, but they sure hide a lot. I was hoping to get one of those night lights where they can be seen in the dark when they’re more active, but don’t want to fry them either. Thanks!

    • Erin, it is wonderful to hear you have tadpoles and frogs in the classroom. The setup sounds ideal, and adding lighting could improve conditions not only for the frogs but also for your students.

      Adding a small lamp above part of the land area will create a warm spot for frogs to go. The wattage of the bulb used will depend on what kind it is and how high it is above the land, but generally some of the lower wattage (25-40 watt) incandescent bulbs available will be sufficient. It is important though that you measure the temperature under the light with a thermometer. If it is getting above 90F, or if it is overheating the enclosure and much of the tank is staying in the 80’s, then it is too much.

      Even better than a standard fluorescent light would be a light that produces both a little heat and a low amount of UVB radiation. These light bulbs are more expensive, and not required for leopard frogs like they are for certain reptiles. But, adding one won’t hurt and will help provide even better conditions. There are many kinds of bulbs that do this, but the spiral compact fluorescent type would be the kind that I look at first.

      Lastly, to improve the appearance of the enclosure you could add a fluorescent strip light like the kind used for aquariums. This isn’t needed for the frogs but if the aquarium is for students to look at it might improve the appearance and help your kids see what is in the tank.

      Whatever type or strength of light you go with, the most important thing is to use an accurate thermometer to measure the temperature because adding light will add heat. Under the light it is okay if the temperature approaches 90F, so long as there are other areas in the enclosure that stay cooler around 70F.

      Enjoy the frogs and tadpoles,

      Devin

  9. I have two leopard frogs. One has almost completed its morphing into a frog. But it won’t go up on land. Should I just put food up on land anyway? I’m leaving the water a little deeper as the other one is still a tadpole. It’s tail is crooked but it’s had leg “buds” for awhile.
    Should I separate them? Lower the water for the big one?

    • Hi Trudy – If your tadpole has arms and legs but still has a tail it does not need food at all. A day or two after the tail is fully absorbed the new frog will need to be fed daily. The small frog will eat live food placed on land. Small crickets that are 1/4 inch in length coated in a powder nutritional supplement for amphibians are a good staple diet to start with.

      Also, if you aren’t observing the frog on land it does not mean that the frog is not going on land. Sometimes leopard frogs jump into water at the slightest hint of movement near the enclosure and so it seems the frogs are always in the water when really they are just jumping into water as soon as they detect you in the room.

      Best of luck,

      Devin

  10. I’m back…unfortunately…and Froggy #2 is behaving sort of like FRoggy #2 before he died…very sluggish and seems to be having trouble moving around. I took him to my job (school) on 6/16 and handled him a bit as I let kids look (NOT TOUCH!) him. I wonder if I stressed him to the point of no return 🙁 He is not touching any of the worms that I’ve left so I started giving him fruit flies and a few crickets…he doesn’t seem to be hungry. Water is filtered and heated and he has a day/night lamp. I change his water weekly. What am I doing wrong??

    • oops..I meant that Froggy #2 is behaving sort of like Froggy #1 did before he died a few months ago. Also, I recently added moss to the tank to give him more places to hide after ditching the too-messy eco earth. But I’ve noticed he hasn’t been eating much for about the last two weeks or so…

      • Hi again. It is difficult to say what is causing your frog to be inactive or sluggish. A few things you could check/consider:

        – Water temperature. You wrote that the water is heated. In fact, leopard frogs are tolerant of cool conditions and if the water is too warm or warm all the time everyday that might cause issues. Try checking the temperature. Water in the 60’s or low 70’s would be about right.

        – Enclosure temperature. Sometimes even small low-wattage day/night heat lights can cause enclosures to get too hot, especially in the summer. Directly under the lamp it can get into the 80’s, but it is very important that other areas throughout the enclosure are cooler and in the 60’s or 70’s. Use an accurate thermometer to measure temperature in different parts of the enclosure to make sure it is not too hot.

        – Water quality. If you bring a sample of water form the tank to a local pet store they can test it for free and tell you if the perimeters are safe (if it is safe for fish, it is safe for your frogs). Also, make sure that if you are using tap water that you are treating it a day in advance with a water condition to remove chlorine and chloramines.

        – Disease. Like you suggest, stress can affect the health of frogs. If the frog is stressed from regular handling or otherwise its immune system will be weak and it will be more susceptible to disease. In this case it might not be easy or possible to diagnose or treat the frog without the help of a veterinarian.

        Best of luck,

        Devin

        • Thanks Devin…
          I was wondering about enclosure temp and that maybe the “day light” + heater is too much in a fairly warm room. Currently, my readings are:

          Enclosure temp: 80 (the light was one but just turned off)

          Enclosure Humidty: 50
          Water temp: 80 (should probably take out the heater for summer…?)

          Water test results:

          Nitrate: safe/Nitrite: safe/Total Hardness: soft (75)/Total Chlorine: safe/Total Alkalinity: low/pH: neutral

          I’ve never let my dechlorinated water sit a whole day before each water change so I will do that.

          Thanks!
          Leeta 🙂

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *